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RATIONALE OF PROPOSED INVESTIGATION
Among the earliest cultivated vegetables utilised as food are Allium species, which are members of the Alliaceae family. They can be used as ornaments, spices, veggies, or medicines to treat various diseases, among other things. More than 700 different species belong to the Allium genus, which is widespread around the world. Due to their identical bio- and phytochemical contents, they are easily distinguished by their strong favour (Kothari et al., 2020).
Nutraceutical-valued food made from plants offers a variety of opportunities to promote health naturally. Effective use of historically recognised agri-food products (such as herbs and spices) encourages a decrease in the cost of healthcare and has the potential to generate income for agricultural communities. Plants from the Allium sp. genus are among the many herbs that have historically been utilised in cooking and medicine. Allium species are made up of plants that are utilised either as decorative plants, as food ingredients or as traditional medicinal ingredients in herbal medication compositions (Bastaki et al., 2021).
Allium species are highly prized around the world as foods, seasonings, and medications in conventional medicine. Organosulfur substances, polyphenols, dietary fibres, and saponins make up the majority of the bioactive substances found in alliums. It has been proven that flavonoids, especially flavonols from alliums, have anticancer, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, known to inhibit-diabetic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antibacterial properties. However, ketones are mostly understood from onions and have not undergone a thorough evaluation in other species (Putnik et al., 2019).
The Allium genus is simple to grow and has a lengthy shelf life. The components of the Allium species exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics as well as other biological traits. The high concentration of sulphur compounds in these activities ties them together, but the compounds are volatile and undergo further reorganisation, resulting in a wide spectrum of derived sulphur compounds. Volatile oils make up the majority of these plants' essential oils (EOs) (Kothari et al., 2020).
SCOPE OF PROPOSED STUDY
The Alliaceae family's Allium species are among the earliest cultivated vegetables consumed as sustenance. This family includes the foods garlic, onions, leeks, and chives, all of which have been said to have therapeutic benefits. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, as well as other biological features, have been demonstrated for the constituents of the Allium species (Bastaki et al., 2021).
The abundance of organosulfur compounds is related to these activities. These organosulfur compounds are thought to inhibit the growth of malignancy, cardiovascular, neurological, diabetic, hepatic, allergic, and arthritic illnesses. Additionally, data on the toxicity of these substances exist. The primary chemical constituents of Allium species are diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulphide, dipropyl disulfide, dipropyl trisulfide, 1-propenyl propyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide (Putnik et al., 2019).
For instance, due to its antithrombotic, cysteine properties, hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemia, and anti-hyperhom Allium species are also beneficial in lowering the risk of cardiovascular disorders (Saljoughian et al., 2018). Moreover, these compounds have shown many activities such as protozoal, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antispasmodic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-asthmatic, anti-amnesic, immunomodulatory, hydrolase/xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and digestive characteristics (Chakraborty et al., 2022).
Many people have pushed for the recovery of Allium spp. extracts for use in food and medicine (Poojary et al., 2017). Extracts that are abundant in polyphenols and organic sulphur compounds (OSC) and are typically ethanolic, aqueous, or H2O: EtOH combinations have been proven to be effective as antimicrobials.
Most OSCs undergo mechanical processing (such as cutting, chewing, and crushing) to gain their functional qualities, which effectively harm the organelles of plant cells. Consider the following metabolic route to summarise the fate of sulphurous bioactive molecules from Allium: Upon tissue disruption (such as chewing, crushing, etc.), the non-volatile S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides (ACSO) retained in the cytoplasm of whole bulbs interact with the vacuole enzyme alliinase. Due to this, unstable chemical sulfinic acids are created, which can then be transformed into a variety of sulfur-based compounds. For instance, thiosulfate (TSs), can then go through additional dissociation and modifications to become volatile and non-volatile substances (Rauter et al., 2018).
In response to the expanding worldwide need for herbal medicinal products, nutraceuticals, and natural goods in primary healthcare, medical plant-based extract manufacturers, as well as essential oil manufacturers, have begun using the most suitable extraction processes. There are numerous procedures used to produce extracts and essential oils with the fewest variations and of a set grade. Since ancient times, a range of physiologically active chemicals has been extracted from herbs and other medicinal plants. Generations of indigenous practitioners have employed the plant's raw material or its purified components to treat a variety of diseases (Stéphane et al., 2021).
It has been possible to identify several bioactive components/phytochemicals by analyzing several Allium plant species. Some of the components of bioactive phytochemicals are organosulfur compounds such as thiosulfates, polysulfides, polyphenols, tannins, which are flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and fructans, fructooligosaccharides, oils that are essential, amino acids, vitamins, pigments, and many others. Moreover, it is also speculated that Historically, the majority of Allium sp.
plants are useful in treating the common cold, flu, sneeze allergies, migraines, stomachache, osteoarthritis, and other illnesses. In addition, bioactive substances found in several of the regularly used Allium sp. plants have been scientifically shown to contribute to a wide range of bioactivities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and many more (Nile et al., 2021).
Therefore, the present study will form the background for the analysis of similar bioactive compounds in another related angiosperm with medicinal properties.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Since ancient times, a range of physiologically active chemicals has been extracted from herbs and other medicinal plants. Generations of indigenous medical professionals have employed the plant's raw material or its purified components to cure a variety of diseases.
Allium species have been utilised in both gastronomic and therapeutic contexts since the dawn of time. Because of the genus' high concentration of bioactive organosulfur compounds, the good health-promoting qualities have been linked to well-documented "evidence-based" investigations. The pharmaceutical and food sectors are both interested in using organosulfur compounds as additions or supplements because of these factors.
Therefore, it is essential to optimize the extraction and stability of these compounds during processing. This paper details the impact of conventional and cutting-edge processing methods on the extraction and long-term stability of organic sulphur compounds from Allium species, with a particular focus on pressure- and electricity-based procedures (Ramirez et al., 2017).
Since ancient times, medicinal plants were historically used for human wellness in the shape of traditional medications, spices, and dietary ingredients. Allium sativum L., an aromatic herbaceous plant, is used as a food and a traditional treatment for several illnesses all over the world. Numerous biological qualities, including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant antidiabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antihypertensive actions were documented for it in traditional remedies.
Alliin, allicin, ajoenes, vinyl dithiins, and flavonoids are among the sulfur-containing phytoconstituents abundant in A. sativum. A. sativum extracts and isolated chemicals have been tested for a range of biological effects, comprising antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties (Putnik et al., 2019).
16 species of the Allium genus have demonstrated possible anticancer capabilities resulting from the accumulation of various sulphur and organic compounds like S-allyl mercapto cysteine, quercetin, flavonoids, and ajoene, according to the phytochemical examination of different Allium genus members. These substances interfere with multiple stages of cancer cell creation, development, differentiation,
and metastasis by a variety of methods, including cell cycle inhibition, signalling pathway inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and antioxidant activity (Chakraborty et al., 2022). Therefore, it is also speculated that similar kinds of bioactive compounds in medicinal plants should also be evident.
Drug discovery has benefited greatly from the use of bioactive substances from Piper species as medicinal agents. Organic products are present of great importance because of their unique qualities as a source of medicinal phytochemicals and because of their efficacy, safety, and absence of side effects. Alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins flavonoids, nitrate-containing compounds, organic sulphur compounds, phenol compounds, and other substances are examples of bioactive compounds found in plants. These compounds display a broad range of bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects (Patel et al., 2019).
Several research has been carried out for the in silico comparative study of therapeutic active biomolecules of Allium species with other angiosperm plants. For instance, Allium subhirsutum L. (hairy garlic) aqueous extract's phytochemical makeup, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anti-quorum sensing capability are evaluated by in vitro and in silico research. The phytochemical profile showed the presence of fatty acids, saponins, terpenes, flavonols/flavanones, flavonoids, and flavonoids in particular, as well as tannins, phenols, and 159 0.006 mg TAE/g of extract of flavonoids (Snoussi et al., 2019).
In reaction to stress, plants typically release secondary metabolites. Due to their numerous medicinal properties, these secondary compounds are extremely beneficial to humanity. Alkaloids, also flavonoids, which are terpenoids, and steroids are examples of the secondary metabolites that plants create. However, most biochemical compounds are uncharacterized in many medicinal plants. Therefore, in silico research is needed on the biological characteristics of bioactive compounds present in medicinal plants similar to Allium species such as garlic and onions.
DETAILED RESEARCH PLAN
- To select bioactive compounds in Allium species using literature survey or DrugBank and PubChem databases.
- To screen bioactive compounds from these plants using the PubChem database and other similar databases.
To carry out the proposed research and to achieve the envisaged objectives, experiments will be planned according to the requirements of the objective. In the initial stage of the work, literature will be reviewed to search for the methodology of the objective. During the preliminary stages of the work, bioactive compounds will be screened in Allium species. Further, bioactive compounds present in the Allium species will be screened in similar medicinal plants using the NCBI database, DrugBank and PubChem medicinal databases.
Therapeutic bioactive compounds present in Allium species will be selected and identical or similar compounds will be screened using the PubChem database and another similar database. Appropriate, tables, figures, and photos will be used to present the results. Conclusions will be reached and relevant recommendations for the potential usage of this novel technology will be provided with the necessary justification. In two years of research, data will be gathered for four seasons during experiments that will be done in a randomized design with appropriate replication.
A summary of the issue, the significance of the inquiry, and the anticipated results are included in this chapter. This will also outline the study's goals in light of the discovered gaps.
A study of the literature
Through summarising, categorizing, and comparing previous research studies, and reviewing literature and conceptual papers, the review of literature will give a critical appraisal of the published body of knowledge on the chosen topic, issue, or study area.
Materials and Procedures
Details of the techniques utilised for data collection, observation, and analysis will be covered in this chapter. The sources of the materials used for the investigation will also be covered in this chapter.
There will be a description of the agro-climatic conditions as well as the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The approach will be thoroughly explained so that other researchers can use the specifics to carry out similar tests.
Results and Analysis
The descriptions of the results will be based on the observations made during the various experiments. Whenever necessary, appropriate visuals, photos, tables with statistical analyses, and graphs will be used to support the results. Depending on how the suggested inquiry turns out, this chapter may need to be divided into smaller sections. To reach conclusions, the gathered results will be contrasted with previously published research on a related topic.
Based on the observations that were made, conclusions will be drawn and compared to findings from other studies.
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