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Chapter 02: Literature Review
This section includes all of the detailed insights of the past papers concerning mental health issues and their related effects on the nursing personnel due to the overnight and rotational-based Overnight jobs. However, the most common mental health issues i.e. anxiety and depression are sometimes associated with each other and thus combinable they cause mental health problems in healthcare practitioners (Huang et al., 2018). However, this section presents the understanding of the deteriorated mental well-being due to the burdened and rotational overnight jobs and their related consequences in the life of nursing personnel.
2.2 Mental Health
Good mental health is defined as the state of well-being in which the individuals can cope easily with the stresses of daily life routine function creatively. Since 2000, the increased reports of mental health issues among young people and the elders, have taken much of its attention (Forbes-Mewett & Sawyer, 2019). Moreover, according to Spoorthy et al., (2020), mental health issues are majorly associated with some other problems and these were associated with the fear of getting infected during the COVID-19 era that further led to multiple health-related issues. For that purpose, the researcher conducted a study in which he took past literature papers i.e. 23 in the initial screening but in the final review, there were overall 6 papers. All of them showed that due to the intense fear of getting an infection, the majority of the healthcare workers were been suffering from depression, anxiety as well and other mental issues. Kilbourne et al., (2018) that mental health problems are common all over the globe and these are due to the lack of availability of standardized technology-based data resources like those of the physical health problems. Furthermore, Li et al., (2022), stated in the research paper that the nursing personnel staff members working the night shifts majorly are having depression and anxiety and have deteriorated mental health. For that purpose, the author conducted a study and collected the data of 11,061 nurses from 20 different hospitals by online survey. In the results, it was revealed that insomnia, psychological stress as well as depression, and anxiety were present in the shift nurses and they were all suffering from it.
2.2.1 Impact of Anxiety on Mental Health (250)
Anxiety as well as depression exponentially deteriorate mental health and make the person suffer from certain issues and fears that lower the capability to perform daily routine functions productively. Subsequently, a research study was conducted by Ganson et al., (2021), to find out the effect of COVID-19 on mental health issues and the prevalence of anxiety and depression in people concerning their job insecurities. For that purpose, the researcher analyzed data on young adults aged 18 to 25 during the COVID-19 era. The data was asses through the Multivariable Poisson regression Model and the sample size was of the (n = 4, 852) participants. In the results and findings, the researcher found that people significantly experience a mental health burden in terms of anxiety and depression disorders. In addition to that, another research study conducted by Li & Li (2018), stated that anxiety increases the risk of dementia with mild cognitive impairment and hence affects the mental health of a person very badly. For that purpose, the researcher conducted a study in which a generic inverse variance method with the fixed effect model was used to check the effects of anxiety on mental impairment following dementia. The results showed significant results i.e. it was seen that anxiety significantly increased the cognitive impairment in patients who are suffering from dementia and hence it was proved with this research model, that anxiety has a deteriorated effect on the mental health of a person and affects them negatively in impairing the mental functions very badly.
2.2.2 Impact of Depression on Mental Health (250)
Depression and anxiety both are communal mental health issues and are commonly associated with impaired mental health functions. According to LeMoult & Gotlib (2019), major depressive disorder is one of the most common and most prevalent forms of depression among people and its occurrence rate could be 16.6% with an estimation of 21.3% particularly in women. Moreover, Abdollahi & Zarghami (2018), stated in their research papers that, postpartum depression affects women’s mental as well as physical health even after a long time occurrence of her delivery. For that purpose, the researcher conducted a study in which 1801 pregnant women having pregnancy weeks of 32 to 42 attending healthcare centers were examined for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). After 4 years, 204 women with the symptoms of postpartum depression and 467 women without postpartum depression were examined by Queshannaire, and EPDS was evaluated using the Multivariable logistic regression analysis. The results and the findings evaluate that postpartum depression predisposes women after a longer time duration in the form of depression and other mental as well as physical health issues. Correspondingly, another research study done by Johnson et al., (2018), stated that depression in adolescents further increases the risk of poor mental health in adulthood. For that purpose, the researcher conducted a study in which EMBASE and MEDLINE were researched, and the; longitudinal Cohort studies were applied to check the intensity of depression in adolescents (10 – 19) and the outcome of the depression i.e. the degressive and the anxiety disorders were examine in the people aged (21+) were selected. Furthermore, the meta-analysis using the inverse variance and the random effect modeling were applied to check the results. The results showed that adolescent depression further increases the risk of subsequent depression at the age of 21+ and hence it also deteriorates the mental health functions too late in life.