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Patient-centred care is a relationship that is established between healthcare professionals and service users. Vonderembse and Dobrzykowski (2016) stated that it is also considered a significant relationship that is generated between families for ensuring a proper decision. It facilitates gaining appropriate information about needs and preferences of service users so that their decision can be supported in an appropriate way. Vonderembse and Dobrzykowski (2016) mentioned that choice and empowerment, as well as access and respect, are considered significant factors that are associated with this approach. It is evaluated that the world health organisation's workforce supports universal health coverage for providing consistent guiding principles to healthcare professionals. This is important for conveying health system-related support, and it also influences Decision-making in healthcare
professionals to provide proper care processes to service users. This study will provide relevant information about universal health coverage and sustainable goals. It will also convey information about the Covid vaccination care pathway that has been considered in India for people. It will also focus on analysing the health industry and various resources that are prevalent within the healthcare sector.
Figure 1: Framework for patient-centred care
(Source: Vonderembse & Dobrzykowski (2016)
Universal health coverage as sustainable goals: COVID vaccination care pathway
Universal health coverage provides information about the accumulation of health services by people and communities. It focuses on conveying health services in a full spectrum, from health promotion to prevention as well as treatment and rehabilitation (World Health Organisation, 2023). It is also beneficial for palliative care across the life courses. Hanlon et al. (2011) mentioned that with the help of Universal health coverage, sufficient quality needs to be provided by using various services that do not expose financial hardship. Along with that, Li et al. (2023) stated that the inclusion of universal health coverage in sustainable development goals presents a significant opportunity for promoting a comprehensive and coherent approach to health. This, in turn, is valuable for focusing on the health system. Lairumbi et al. (2011) added that countries have also considered universal health coverage for progressing towards health-related targets. It has also become a significant goal for health reform in many countries. Achieving universal health coverage in terms of financial risk protection and accessing quality, essential Decision-making in healthcare services is beneficial. This, in turn, is also valuable as it facilitates considering different socioeconomic status and geographical locations and has access to essential health services (World Health Organisation, 2023). This can reduce different health disparities that are prevalent, which influences social justice. With the help of appropriate universal health coverage, health outcomes of individuals are also improved. This, in turn, is valuable for leading to earlier diagnosis and treatment of health problems. It is also beneficial for reducing the financial burden of health care in terms of safeguarding individuals from families and health expenses. This, in turn, can reduce the financial hardship that is mainly experienced by the population. Apart from that, Kapiriri and Razavi (2021) stated that different disparities are also prevalent within the Decision-making in healthcare sector for accessing healthcare services. This, in turn, is responsible for creating a major healthcare outcome within and between countries. It mainly takes place in low-income and middle-income groups. Oleribe et al. (2019) mentioned that universal health coverage focuses on elevating financial burdens and promoting overall economic growth. It is also the role of the government for prioritising health care as a public work for allocating resources and providing universal access to medical care and prevention services as well as wellness programs.
PEST analysis of health industry
In the following case, it is highlighted that the incorporation of union government law is important in India as it provides different regulations that are required to be considered for maintaining ethical issues in the healthcare sector (HSTP, 2023). The consideration of clinical establishment registration and regulation also focuses on providing different guidelines that are essential for healthcare professionals so that they are able to treat service users adequately. With the help of this approach, healthcare professionals are able to generate various guidelines that are essential for treating service users, which influences in generating appropriate outcomes (Ministry of Finance, 2023). In addition, Chawla (2023) stated that the healthcare sector in India contributes about 2.1% of GDP. This sector illustrates that proper funding and spending on the healthcare sector are conducted, which influences the enhancement of the contribution of this particular sector. It also provides proper opportunities. £104.5 billion is spent in the healthcare sector of India, which illustrates that proper development and advancement are considered for improving the outcome of individuals (Global Data, 2023). On the other hand, 51.40% of deaths took place in India during the pandemic situation. This highlights the enhancement of the death rate in this period (World Health Organisation, 2023). Along with that, COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases, as well as pulmonary diseases, are also major incidents that took place during the pandemic situation, and they also influenced the death rate. Apart from that, appropriate technological investments are also considered within the respective country. In this context, India will witness approximately 80% of investment in digital care, which will be valuable for streamlining the Decision-making in healthcare industry (Global Data, 2023).
Figure 2: Rate of health expenditure in India
(Source: Ministry of Finance, 2023)
Resources in healthcare
It is essential for the government to focus on various resources that are beneficial for attaining universal health coverage. It mainly includes proper planning and service delivery as well as effective decision-making processes that are beneficial for achieving the proper outcome. Wilson et al. (2020) mentioned that financial resources are considered significant factors that are required to be considered by the government for maintaining appropriate supplies and equipment as well as to provide proper wages to healthcare professionals. Moreover, Uddin et al. (2021) stated that the consideration of appropriate financial management abilities is also essential for the government for ensuring the proper distribution of resources. In order to deliver high-quality healthcare services, it is essential for the government to hire and train staff so that effective Decision-making in healthcare management can be sustained. Wójcik and Ioannou (2020) mentioned that the health system could only function with health workers in terms of improving health service coverage and realising the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. It mainly depends on the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality. In the following context, Gabor (2021) illustrated that proper human resource management techniques are beneficial for encouraging employee development as well as to foster a healthy work environment. This, in turn, is also valuable for sustaining the workforce numbers within the healthcare sector and pressure among Decision-making in healthcare workers is also reduced. Johnson et al. (2019) evaluated that their health workforce has a vital role in developing the resilience of committees and the health system for responding to different disasters that are caused by natural and man-made hazards.
Figure 3: Resource management
(Source: World Health Organisation, 2023)
The above figure has provided information about resource management that are essential to be considered for developing different policies and maintaining qualified health workers. In the following case, it is evaluated that technological resources are becoming crucial within the healthcare sector (World Health Organisation, 2023). This is also valuable for improving the care of service users, and it is also focusing on maintaining appropriate communication processes. This, in turn, is also valuable for boosting healthcare delivery and it is also valuable for increasing efficiency. For the purpose of securing Information of service users, it is required to strengthen technological advancement. This, in turn, is also valuable for preventing cyber-attacks, and it is essential for healthcare Executives to remain informed regarding various technological developments (World Health Organisation, 2023). This particular factor is also valuable as it influences healthcare professionals to focus on data-driven choices as this can facilitate making accurate and timely information. It is also beneficial to implement an information management system for analysing and storing information so that an efficient and patient-centred approach can be provided to service users.
COVID vaccination care pathway by India: COVID Suraksha
The government of India has focused on proper expenditure on the healthcare sector for sustaining Decision-making in healthcare facilities for individuals. It has also considered government health care expenditure in total health expenditure. It is estimated that the health expenditure in India has enhanced from 28.6% in 2014 to 40.6% in 2020. In the following contact, the respective country has also focused on conveying proper health care. The concerned government has also incorporated mission Covid Suraksha for increasing vaccine development within the pandemic situation. The government of the respective country has also provided a package of £900 billion for the respective program. This, in turn, is also valuable for providing pre-clinical development through clinical development and conveying regulatory facilitation. (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2023). India is also focusing on providing affordable healthcare for attaining different sustainable development goals and universal healthcare so that the outcome can be beneficial. In this case, it has been illustrated that the government has launched Mission Covid Suraksha for accelerating Indian Covid 19 vaccine development. The government of India has announced a package of £900 billion For mission Covid Suraksha, the Indian Covid-19 vaccine development Mission (Ministry of Finance, 2023). The vaccine development mission focuses from end to end on pre-clinical development through clinical development as well as manufacturing and regulatory facilitation. Different funded resources were also considered in this case for accelerating the development of the product. In the following context, it is evaluated that it has focused on increasing the development of approximately 5 to 6 facts for ensuring a proper market consideration. It has also provided effective regulatory authorities and introduction of the public health system (Ministry of Finance, 2023). This particular factor was mainly considered for reducing the spread of the disease within the community. One of the significant objectives associated with the funding process is to enhance the clinical development of the vaccine among candidates at the early stages. It is also conducted for developing a proper trial and increasing the laboratories and central laboratories (NITI Aayog, 2023). This particular factor was also conducted for improving the production facilities and supporting the Covid 19 vaccine development. The other important objectives were to support the development of common harmonised protocols, training as well as data management systems. It also includes regulatory submission, internal and external quality management systems and acquisitions (NITI Aayog, 2023). Capabilities for the process, development and sale and development. Clinical trials were also conducted to support the mission. One of the prime elements associated with it is the development of a proper target product profile so that the vaccines can be introduced through mission and proper characteristics can be applicable to India. Phase-1 of the Covid Suraksha Mission has been allocated £900 billion For 12 months. 10 vaccine candidates were supported by the Department of Biotechnology, and five vaccine candidates were for human trials (Ministry of Finance, 2023). This particular factor was a targeted effort for enabling the development of indigenous, affordable and accessible vaccines for the country. It was also conducted for sustaining universal health coverage for complementing the national mission of Aathma Nirvair Bharat.
The Asian Development Bank has focused on providing approximately £1.5 billion to the government of the respective country. It has mainly been provided for maintaining safe and effective vaccines against the pandemic situation. The respective bank has also conveyed additional investment. Loans were also funded for at least 667 million COVID-19 vaccine doses and 317 million people. In addition to that, this particular factor has also supported the national deployment and vaccination plan of the respective country (Asian Development Bank, 2023). Priority groups were also considered, which mainly included healthcare and frontline workers as well as senior citizens and individuals aged 45 to 59 years having comorbidities (Asian Development Bank, 2023). Along with that, the respective Bank also supported the government of India in safeguarding individuals from different transmissions of the disease and saving lives. Vaccines are considered critical in overcoming the health, social and economic impact that has been experienced by individuals during the pandemic situation. The consideration of appropriate vaccination has also been beneficial for rejuvenating economic activities and sustaining health services. This, in turn, is also a solution for restoring livelihoods and focusing on social and human development priorities (Asian Development Bank, 2023). Asian development bank's Japan fund for Poverty Reduction also provided to India for assisting a grant of £4,000,000 to support the community. This was mainly conducted to strengthen the vaccine system of India.
Figure 4: Vaccine funding through Asian Development Bank
(Source: Asian Development Bank, 2023)
Nagesh (2021) evaluated that service users experience major challenges while accessing the vaccination process in India. This is because no sufficient cold storage facilities were prevalent, and the lack of trained vaccinators has created a significant issue in India. This reduced the vaccination process within the country. Along with that, improper funding processes also created issues for the maintenance of logistical and administrative requirements. Nagesh (2021) stated that lack of sufficient distribution of cold chains across different states of India created significant challenges. Along with that, vaccine hesitancy and miss information and distrust was also significant challenge that has been experienced by Service users. The rise of misinformation during the pandemic situation created a major issue, and improper funding during the production of Covid 19 vaccination created hesitancy among individuals. On a similar note, Nagesh (2021) evaluated that Indian open vaccination for everybody over the age of 18 years and this influenced for online registration system. This also created a period for individuals who were unable to access digital technology. Vaccination centres were also not managed appropriately, which increased the risk of improper navigation in crowded spaces.
Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana, a central sector scheme, was conducted in India for addressing the imbalance in availability of tertiary care and hospitals and enhancing medical education within the country. This particular scheme was also conducted during the pandemic situation for providing proper vaccination processes in different tertiary hospitals (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2023). The main aim of this particular Yojana is to address the imbalances and provide reliable and affordable healthcare services to individuals. This particular health infrastructure played a significant role in the management of COVID-19. This is because this scheme was mainly applied for providing proper infrastructure to different areas where infrastructure was weak. 1300 oxygen beds and 530 ICU beds were also dedicated to Covid 19 treatment so that people from different areas can be treated effectively (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2023). The prime aim of this scheme was to provide a proper balance so that individuals are able to afford different health services. Along with that, the main objective of this scheme was to analyse the regional unavailability of affordable and reliable tertiary healthcare services and to maintain medical education facilities in India (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2023). The prime benefits of this scheme are to treat every citizen in any part of India and upgrade and modernise medical colleges for fostering quality medical education so that pandemic situations can be addressed effectively.
SWOT analysis of vaccination
Table 2: SWOT analysis
(Source: Created by learner)
Proper funding was accumulated, giving the development of the Covid 19 vaccination. This was one of the major strengths of this vaccination process. It was also provided to individuals for reducing the impact of the disease. On the other hand, Nagesh (2021) stated that a wide range of communities could not access vaccination properly. Delayed in the Funding process and vaccination was also generated as vaccination was accumulated from different parties. However, it is essential to improve primary health care services so that they can be provided to individuals. This can also be a significant opportunity for improving health and outcomes. However, improper financial stability and economic shifts or major threats can be experienced by the respective country while implementing a proper scheme.
Models of healthcare funding India vs UK
Healthcare funding is considered a significant approach associated with the healthcare system as it provides information about the delivery of healthcare services and funding. The UK focuses on a single-payer system as the government considers the funding of different healthcare sectors (The Health Foundation, 2023). In this context, it can be evaluated that the consideration of this particular approach is beneficial for individuals as universal coverage is provided. In this case, in the UK, individuals are able to access different healthcare services without any financial hardship. This is because images focus on providing proper funding, and it is also approved by the government of the UK for providing proper services to service users. It also facilitates streamlining in the billing and payment process as service users do not have to consider different billing systems (Office for National Statistics, 2023). On the other hand, Al-Khafajiy et al. (2019) stated that this particular system also has major limitations as service users have to wait a long time for a non-urgent medical process. This, in turn, can lead to frustration and anxiety.
In India, a private insurance system is prevalent where the government considers private insurers for paying for different medical services. Proper collaboration of commercial insurance and medical insurance or considered by the state and federal governments of India (Ministry of Finance, 2023). It is the right of the service users to select their insurers and providers, and these insurers provide alternatives for healthcare professionals and different treatments. In addition, service users can also pay for non-urgent medical services with the help of out-of-pocket or insurance, and this helps in reducing weight times. However, Burton et al. (2021) stated that the presence of private insurance programmes can also generate major limitations. This is because they can be expensive for individuals or families having different medical conditions. In addition to that, they are unable to provide universal coverage, where people belonging to marginalised and vulnerable areas are unable to access these insurance programmes (Ministry of Finance, 2023). This, in turn, creates a major issue for accessing the universal health coverage that is required for providing appropriate healthcare services. Improper billing and payment processes can also be considered a major issue for private insurance departments.
India healthcare budget
Budgeting is considered a significant component associated with the healthcare sector. Nayak et al. (2019) stated that it provides information about different resources that are allocated and distributed in different aspects of healthcare. Along with that, countries also utilise this different budgeting method in terms of performance-based and zero-based budgeting for analysing expenditure. This facilitates identifying the allocation of funding and the cost of different aspects within the healthcare system. In India, it has been evaluated that the total health expenditure is approximately 3.2% of GDP (Ministry of Finance, 2023). It has also been evaluated that the out-of-pocket expenditure is reduced, and public spending in healthcare has increased. This particular factor has illustrated that India is complying with universal health coverage for illustrating. The effort on public investment in the health sector and various indicators have also demonstrated an encouraging trend on a sustained basis (Ministry of Finance, 2023). This particular factor ensures the proper quality of services at the grassroots level, and it also highlights a reduction of different chances of elements requiring secondary and tertiary healthcare services.
India's financial performance management
Financial performance management includes proper monitoring and analysis of various financial aspects that are associated with the healthcare system. In the following case, Nižetić et al. (2019) evaluated that appropriate financial performance management involves the cost of healthcare services, revenue and expenditure. Vujosevic et al. (2020) stated that different countries have also established a proper system associated with financial performance management. In this context, it has been highlighted that the UK government has focused on the NHS improvement for proper funding process. It also facilitates conducting an appropriate tracking system for analysing the cost associated with health care, services, revenues and expenditures. On the other hand, in India, appropriate financial performance management is considered by the government of the country, and this is mainly conducted for maintaining competitive quality improvement among healthcare providers (Ministry of Finance, 2023). Along with that, out-of-pocket expenditure and improving the health-related quality of life among patients are considered in this case.
India cost-benefit analysis
Effective cost-benefit analysis includes the assessing of different financial costs and benefits that are accumulated from healthcare, intervention and policies. Howard and Khalifeh (2020) mentioned that effective cost-benefit analysis is required to be considered as it facilitates making proper decisions about healthcare financing and policy. The government of India focuses on developing different schemes by accumulating funding through central and state governments. In the following context, it is illustrated that Covid Suraksha Mission has been incorporated for highlighting the vaccine development (Ministry of Finance, 2023). It has focused on considering different loans from the Asian Development Bank and has also approved a scheme for £900 crore for a period of 12 months (Ministry of Finance, 2023). This particular factor was mainly considered for committing to the vaccination programme and strengthening the research and development capacity. It was also conducted for proper manufacturing and vaccination of each and every adult Indian safely.
Challenges to access
Equitable access to healthcare services and care is beneficial for the health system. On the other hand, Nagesh (2021) evaluated that various challenges have also been experienced while providing vaccination. In the following case, people living in geographical and urban areas were unable to access vaccination appropriately. This, in turn, created major issues within healthcare services as it reduced access to healthcare services, especially in rural areas. Along with that, vaccination was also conducted through online registration. Nagesh (2021) stated that this, in turn, created major challenges as marginalised and vulnerable People were unable to access online facilities, and they experienced improper vaccination processes.
India and UK-UHC system
India and the UK have different healthcare systems, and their approaches are also different. It has been evaluated that the Covid Suraksha scheme and national health service in the UK are considered different examples associated with universal healthcare programmes in respective countries. These programmes focus on conveying healthcare access to individuals and different approaches associated with funding policy and financial performance management or prevalent. The healthcare system in India is highly fragmented as public and private insurance departments focus on providing funding. However, in the UK, the NHS is funded by the government (Office for National Statistics, 2023). Improper Non-urgent treatment and limited financing is considered a major issue associated with the NHS. On the other hand, the Covid Suraksha scheme accumulates money from the state and federal governments (Ministry of Finance, 2023).
Leadership for the workforce and education management
It is essential for providing proper training to vaccinators so that they are able to provide appropriate vaccination to individuals. Johnson et al. (2021) stated that different trainings are required to be provided for skill development as well as capacity. Building programmes can also be conducted for healthcare professionals so that they are able to provide high-quality patient care. Dai et al. (2019) stated that one of the significant approaches associated with the improvement of various skills of healthcare professionals is to enhance different numbers of medical colleges and ensure that healthcare professionals are equipped with necessary skills and knowledge. This can facilitate providing quality health services.
Therefore, it is concluded that focusing on universal health care services is required. India and other nations have considered different financing policies, financial performance management systems, cost-benefit analyses, and budgeting for universal health coverage. The Covid Suraksha scheme and NHS have different organisational structures in finance and services. It is required to develop appropriate skills and competencies among healthcare professionals for providing relevant healthcare services.
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