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Product innovation, process innovation, organisational innovation, and marketing innovation are just a few of the subcategories of innovation. By bringing new technology, management strategies, and business models that encourage a culture of creativity and entrepreneurship, FDI may boost innovation in developing nations.
The economic growth of underdeveloped nations is greatly aided by FDI. It encourages capital investment, employment growth, productivity improvement, and technology transfer and innovation. Developing nations often lack the tools and resources needed to create innovative technologies on their own. Access to cash, knowledge, and technology via FDI may boost local industries and speed up economic development.
The diversity and competitiveness of the economy of emerging nations may both benefit from FDI. Developing nations may transition from low-value-added activities to high-value-added businesses by attracting FDI in sectors with high technical intensity, promoting sustained economic growth. Additionally, FDI may support nations' access to foreign markets, integration into global value chains, and improvement of export competitiveness.
FDI is essential for promoting knowledge transfer and stimulating innovation in developing nations. Domestic businesses may receive cutting-edge technology, managerial techniques, and market expertise thanks to FDI. By being exposed to foreign information and experience, home businesses may improve their technical skills by absorbing it and adapting. Technology transfer via FDI may lead to increases in productivity, better processes, and the creation of novel goods and services.
Technology transfer brought on by FDI may benefit the economy as a whole. Collaboration between foreign investors and domestic businesses, universities, and research institutes opens doors for information sharing, joint research initiatives, and cooperative innovation projects. These information transfers and collaborative effects help to create a vibrant innovation environment that encourages invention, experimentation, and entrepreneurship.
However, there is no inevitable or definite connection between FDI, technology transfer, and innovation. The success of technology transfer and the ensuing effect on innovation are influenced by a number of variables. The legislative and institutional framework, firm-level determinants, industry characteristics, and host country factors are a few of these variables.
The host country's infrastructure, business climate, and human capital quality all have a significant impact on how well developing nations can absorb foreign aid. An environment that promotes technology transfer and innovation is one that is supported by policies that are favourable, enough infrastructure, and trained labour. The ability of a company to absorb and use transferred technology for innovation is influenced at the business level by a variety of variables, including the firm's absorptive capacity, research and development skills, financial access, and collaborative networks.
The majority of the benefits of FDI-induced technology transfer often go to businesses that prioritise innovation, encourage cooperation with overseas partners, and engage in research and development. Industry factors have a big impact on how well technology is transferred and how well innovation follows. Industries that invest more in research, are more technologically advanced, and are linked to the world would probably gain more from FDI-induced knowledge transfer. The existence of business clusters, information hubs, and cooperation networks within a sector may enhance the impacts of technology transfer and promote an innovative culture.
The efficiency of technology transfer and innovation is also influenced by the institutional and regulatory environment of a nation. The required incentives and protection for foreign investors to transfer their technology are provided by strong intellectual property rights protection, effective contract enforcement, and a clear regulatory framework. The commercialization and spread of transferred innovations are facilitated by an effective innovation ecosystem, which includes research institutions, technology transfer agencies, and venture capital markets.
Innovation, FDI, and technology transfer are all interrelated and essential to the growth of emerging nations' economies. FDI contributes cash, technological advancements, and managerial know-how that promote innovation, advance domestic capacities, and advance technology transfer. Host country variables, firm-level factors, industry characteristics, and the legal and institutional environment all have an impact on the relationship between FDI, technology transfer, and innovation.
Developing nations must provide a climate that is conducive to FDI, the development of absorbent capabilities, cooperation, and the encouragement of an innovative culture. Developing nations must constantly modify their tactics to entice FDI, encourage technology transfer, and nurture innovation in a global economy that is continually changing. By effectively using FDI-induced technology transfer and innovation, emerging nations may overcome developmental obstacles, close the technical gap, and establish themselves as dynamic actors on the international stage. Developing nations may reach their full potential and promote inclusive and sustainable development that benefits their society and advances the global community with the proper policies, investments, and partnerships.
Foreign Direct Investments - theoretical framework
Definition and types of Foreign Direct Investment
A foreign entity investing money in the domestic economy of a host nation with the hope of developing a long-term relationship is known as foreign direct investment (FDI). As it brings in cash, technology, managerial know-how, and access to global markets, FDI is a vital component of economic growth and development, especially in developing nations. The theoretical underpinnings of FDI, including its definition and many forms, will be examined in this section.
An investment made by a foreign entity, such as a multinational company (MNC), in a nation other than its native country is referred to as foreign direct investment. FDI often entails gaining possession of or control over productive assets in the host nation, such as factories, infrastructure, or natural resources. FDI signifies a long-term commitment and a greater degree of control over the invested assets than portfolio investments, which entail purchasing shares in foreign corporations.
Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Horizontal FDIHorizontal FDI's main goals are to break into new markets, benefit from cost savings, or get around trade restrictions. As an example, consider a global carmaker building a factory overseas to cater to the regional market.
Vertical FDIForeign investment is made vertically at various points in the industrial process. It may be further broken down into the backward and forward vertical FDI subcategories.
Backward Vertical FDIWhen a foreign company makes investments in the host country's upstream value chain operations, this is known as backward vertical FDI. This covers tasks like locating raw materials, inputs for manufacturing, or components. As an example, a retailer of apparel may invest in textile production facilities in a developing nation to guarantee a steady supply of raw materials.
Forward Vertical FDIForeign investment in the value chain's downstream operations is referred to as forward vertical FDI. This includes tasks like commerce, marketing, or distribution. A global beverage corporation setting up bottling and distribution facilities abroad to better access local customers is an example of forward vertical FDI.
Conglomerate FDIConglomerate FDI happens when a foreign company makes investments in sectors unrelated to its current commercial endeavours. This kind of investment intends to diversify the company's portfolio and increase its presence in other markets or sectors. An example would be a technology corporation expanding its business by purchasing a chain of hotels in another nation.
Platform FDIPlatform FDI refers to investments made in a country by multinational corporations as a basis for future regional or international activities. The host nation acts as a hub through which the business may reach markets in its neighbours. Platform FDI's main goal is to take use of local advantages and regional integration. A international logistics corporation may, for instance, build a regional distribution hub in a developing nation to effectively service the region's many nations.
Greenfield FDIA foreign company setting up a new operation or building new facilities in the host nation is known as greenfield FDI. The development of completely new producing capacity is what makes this kind of investment distinctive. Greenfield investments often provide the host nation with substantial advantages, such as job creation, technological transfer, and the growth of regional supply networks. Taking advantage of local expertise and resources, a global pharmaceutical corporation may build a new R&D facility in a developing nation.
Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)Cross-border M&A describes when a foreign business buys a substantial amount of stock in an already existing company. This kind of FDI enables the acquiring business to get rapid access to the market, clientele, and resources of the host nation. The transfer of technology, management techniques, and sector knowledge may be facilitated through M&A activity. In order to extend its operations in a new market, an international telecoms corporation can, for instance, buy a local telecom provider.
Resource-seeking FDIForeign companies investing in host nations to get access to natural resources like minerals, oil, gas, or agricultural goods is known as resource-seeking FDI. The main reason for making this kind of investment is to ensure a consistent supply of essential inputs for their manufacturing operations. Resource-seeking FDI may help the host nation's infrastructure, extractive industries, and job possibilities grow. A global mining corporation may, as an example, invest in a developing nation to harvest and export lucrative natural resources.
Market-seeking FDIForeign companies entering a host nation with the intention of accessing a large or expanding market are said to be engaging in market-seeking FDI. Serving local clients and capitalising on consumer demand in the host nation are the main goals. Increased competition, a wider range of products, and improvements to the local infrastructure and distribution systems may all result from FDI market exploration. To serve the expanding middle class, a global consumer products corporation could establish production and distribution operations in a developing nation.
A key element of global economic integration, foreign direct investment (FDI) is a major force behind economic growth, technical innovation, and development in emerging nations. Understanding the theoretical underpinnings of FDI, including its definition and many forms, may help one better understand the goals and tactics of foreign investors. Policymakers and scholars may get a better understanding of the effects and potential advantages of FDI on technology transfer and overall economic development in developing countries by analysing the various forms of FDI.
The term "foreign direct investment" (FDI) refers to a variety of activities, each with its own goals and motives. An in-depth understanding of these kinds offers insight into how FDI affects technology transfer in developing nations. Conglomerate and platform FDI boost diversification and regional integration, whereas horizontal and vertical FDI allow the transfer of industry-specific knowledge and technology. New production capacity is created via greenfield investments, but cross-border M&A offers instant access to markets and knowledge transfer.
Finding resources and markets via FDI helps local industries grow and meets customer demand. It is critical to provide an environment that supports FDI inflows, facilitates knowledge transfer, safeguards intellectual property rights, and promotes connections between international investors and regional industry. Such actions might increase the contribution of FDI to economic expansion, technical advancement, and sustainable development in developing countries.
Analysing the causes, influences, and motives of FDI on host and home nations requires an understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of FDI. Over time, a number of ideas have been proposed to explain the causes and distribution of FDI flows. The popular FDI theories that shed light on the thought processes of multinational companies (MNCs) and the variables affecting their investment decisions will be covered in this part.
Internationalization TheoryThe internalisation benefits and transaction costs of enterprises play a key role in spurring FDI, according to internationalisation theory, commonly referred to as the market imperfections approach. This argument contends that enterprises participate in FDI to take advantage of their distinctive ownership advantages, which may not be effectively transmitted via market procedures and include technology, brand recognition, or managerial know-how. FDI is seen as a tactical way to address market flaws such incomplete information, trouble enforcing contracts, and the expense of coordinating operations across borders.
Internalization TheoryBased on the idea of internalisation benefits, internalisation theory emphasises the firm's choice to engage in FDI as opposed to depending on external markets. It contends that businesses participate in FDI when internalising certain tasks inside their administrative frameworks is more effective than contracting out or obtaining a licence. Firms may safeguard their confidential information, keep tighter control over daily operations, and increase their part of the value produced by internalising these activities.
Eclectic Paradigm (OLI Framework)The John Dunning-created OLI (Ownership, Location, and Internalisation) framework, often known as the eclectic paradigm, integrates ideas from the internationalisation and internalisation theories. According to this, FDI is driven by three key factors: advantages related to the investment company's ownership, the host nation's geographic position, and internalisation benefits that make FDI preferable to other forms of international trade. By taking into account the interaction between firm-specific advantages, host nation advantages, and internalisation gains, this framework offers a thorough framework for analysing FDI.
Market Power TheoryAccording to the market power hypothesis, businesses engage in FDI in order to create or strengthen their market dominance in foreign markets. Businesses may lessen competition, get access to limited resources or distribution channels, and use their economies of scale and scope by investing in a host nation. Through greater market share, stronger pricing power, or strategic positioning, FDI enables companies to solidify their market position and boost their profitability.
Product Life Cycle TheoryAccording to Raymond Vernon's theory of the product life cycle, FDI is motivated by the development of goods and the dynamics of their markets. This hypothesis holds that businesses make their first investments in their native nation to create and market new goods. Firms want to grow globally via FDI when goods mature and face more competition on the home market in order to reach new markets and take advantage of the product's remaining life cycle phases. Thus, the necessity to protect market share and lengthen the product's life cycle motivates FDI.
Internalization-Locational Advantages-Industry Characteristics (ILI) FrameworkThe Stephen Hymer-created and -expanded ILI framework integrates firm-specific advantages, host nation location benefits, and industry-specific characteristics. It emphasises the interaction between an organization's internal competencies, location-specific benefits of the host nation, and industry features. This theory states that variables including market size, resource accessibility, technical prowess, and industrial structure affect FDI.
Network TheoryAccording to network theory, FDI is primarily driven by social networks, interactions, and knowledge spillovers. This theory contends that corporations participate in FDI in order to get access to and take advantage of networks of connections with suppliers, clients, and other businesses. These networks provide useful information, aid in the transfer of technology, and produce synergistic outcomes that increase the competitive advantage of the company. In order to obtain access to important resources, expertise, and commercial possibilities, companies want to tap into these networks via FDI.
The theoretical frameworks covered above provide important new perspectives on the causes, effects, and drivers of FDI. These theories provide several viewpoints on the causes of corporations' FDI and the variables affecting their investment choices. Policymakers, researchers, and practitioners can create efficient investment promotion policies and maximise the advantages of FDI for economic growth, technological transfer, and development in both the home and host countries by understanding these theoretical underpinnings.
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