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Diabetes is a disease that develops when the capacity of body to regulate and use sugar as fuel is weakened. Sugar is sometimes referred to as glucose. This chronic condition causes the blood to continually contain an excessive amount of sugar. Over time, cardiovascular, neurological, and immune system issues might result from excessive blood sugar levels. There are essentially two issues with type 2 diabetes (Berbudi et al., 2020).
The hormone that controls the entry of sugar into cells, insulin, is not produced by the pancreas in sufficient amounts. Additionally, cells don't react well to insulin and take up less sugar. Furthermore, this public health challenge is essential to address because Type 2 diabetes does not have a treatment. There are various ways through which we can manage the disease like loss of weight, exercise, food habits can all help with disease management.
Diabetes medicines or insulin therapy may be advised if diet and exercise are insufficient to regulate blood sugar. So, this is very important to spread awareness regarding disease management options amongst the targeted population. According to the World Health Organization, 415 million people worldwide have diabetes. The global data indicate a consistent increase in the prevalence rate of roughly 2.5 per cent annually (Khan et al., 2020).
diabetes is acknowledged as a critical public health issue that significantly impacts human life and healthcare expenses. Due to urbanization and rapid growth in the economy, diabetes is becoming more common in many parts of the world. A person's functional capacities and overall standard of life are negatively impacted by diabetes, which raises morbidity and results in early mortality. Concerns have lately been raised since persons under the age of 60 account for more than one-third of diabetes-related mortality (Carpenter et al., 2019). Increasing levels of sedentary behaviour and absorption of poor diets have been linked to these changes, which raise Body Mass Index (BMI) and fasting plasma glucose.
Moreover, if any individual has diabetes, then they will go through many emotional and mental difficulties. Diabetes-related discomfort is common and harmful if left unaddressed. When diabetes is not well managed, one may start to feel anxious, frustrated, apathetic, and depressed. It's important to make absolutely certain that the individual needs help before anyone else can help them because the emotional impact can have an impact on family and friends as well.
Nurses play a significant role in identifying the symptoms and indicators is crucial for rapid diagnosis. Nurses also offer essential food and lifestyle recommendations to address risk factors. This can help the individuals those who are at risk in delaying or preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes (Artasensi et al., 2020).
Complications can be avoided mainly by having patients take their prescriptions as prescribed, follow up with specialists, and get patient education, which can only be done by nurse practitioners effectively. The chemist, nurse, and clinicians should emphasize the value of blood glucose control, long-term consequences, and management objectives at every patient interaction (Su et al., 2023). The patient must be motivated to alter their lifestyle to reduce the likelihood of issues.
Additionally, individuals with diabetes should be educated on the indications, warning signs, and treatment options for hypoglycemia. Patients should be informed about the positive aspects of attending support groups, as well as the services that are accessible. The patient should be taught by a dietician what foods they can eat and by the nurse how to monitor their blood sugar at home. Furthermore, seven different aspects of wellness are typically considered to exist: mental, physical, social, financial, spiritual, environmental, and occupational (Galitzdorfe et al., 2020).
These elements influence one another and connect to one another. When one dimension gets out of balance, it affects the other facets of our well-being. Additionally, a wide range of intricate factors in both physical and social contexts have an impact on health. At the individual and population levels, these factors—often described to as the social determinants of health—can be considered as the primary determinants and top forecasters of medical disorders. Social variables (including financial status, educational attainment, housing status, and access to healthy food) are important in managing the Type 2 diabetes, as shown by accumulating worldwide and local research (Messiah et al., 2020).
A health promotion model created by The Tannahill provides a framework to highlight the connections between wellness education, health protection, and prevention, which needs to implement in the prevention of type 2 diabetes by creating awareness in the targeted population about the risk factors (Goyal et al., 2021). However, it is evident that the responsibility for behaviour modification cannot solely rest with individuals. To make healthy choices simple, communities, the media, the food industry, workplaces, healthcare professionals, households, educational institutions, and workplaces must collaborate.
Stress is a normal part of life, but it may contribute to managing diabetes more difficult, making it harder to maintain blood sugar levels and take care of daily demands. Physical activity, enough rest, and relaxation techniques can all be beneficial. Patients should discuss these and other stress management techniques with their nurse practitioner (Galitzdorfe et al., 2020).
A complex and persistent condition, type 2 diabetes necessitates ongoing medical attention.
Those with this illness typically have a shorter life expectancy than those without. Many studies stated that people with type 2 diabetes have a longer average lifespan than those with type 1 diabetes (Li et al., 2020). A person's life expectancy and quality of life may be negatively impacted by several diabetes-related health issues. Moreover, Life expectancy, or the number of years one should anticipate to live, is six years lower in type 2 diabetics than in non-diabetics at age 50.
By meeting their treatment objectives, individual with type 2 diabetes can lower their risk of issues and extend their lives. In 2014, 422 million individuals in the United States had diabetes, making it one of the top health issues for the ageing population globally (Magliano et al., 2020). According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), countries with low to middle incomes are the primary contributors for the steady rise in diabetes prevalence over the past three decades, especially type 2 diabetes.
The risk of early death is generally increased by micro- and macrovascular problems associated with diabetes. Furthermore, However, compliance with medicine and the creation of various treatment programs improve risk factor control, lower complications related to diabetes, and enhance survival. In this regard, estimating life expectancy (LE) in diabetic individuals in comparison to the non-diabetic community is an essential tool to measure the risk factors that can be modified on the one hand and the detrimental effects of diabetes on the population on the other (Berbudi et al., 2020).
Most research evaluating the life expectancy of diabetic patients demonstrates that this life expectancy declines with age and is shorter than the life expectancy in the general population. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in younger individuals, but it typically doesn't show symptoms until later in life (Gong et al., 2019).
In most cases, a combination of bad lifestyle choices, obesity, and genes causes the condition, which is characterized by excessive blood glucose (sugar), or hyperglycemia. Untreated hyperglycemia can have serious, potentially fatal consequences over time. Additionally, having type 2 diabetes increases your risk for several illnesses that can shorten your life expectancy.
According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention trusted Source, diabetes is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States. (Khan et al., 2020). However, no concrete number can predict how long someone with type 2 diabetes will survive. The probability of getting illnesses that may reduce your lifespan is decreased the better your diabetes is managed. Moreover, Cardiovascular illness is the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes.
This is due to the fact that people with type 2 diabetes commonly have a history of hypertension, high cholesterol, and other diseases that increase their risk of heart disease, in combination with the fact that high blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels. In clinical practice and when developing public health interventions, quantifying the additional years of life obtained from better diabetes management is essential (Li et al., 2020). Clinicians can emphasize the value of diabetes management in extending life expectancy by using this knowledge in the process of collaborative decision-making with their patients. In order to priorities and create public health interventions or programs, policymakers might use this information (Gong et al., 2019).
in particular, face ethical difficulties and obstacles every day while caring for patients with chronic conditions like diabetes. Nurses perform in a healthcare system that prioritises financial effectiveness. On the one hand, the business model of serving "customers" limits nurses, but on the other, the professional consciousness of providing medical treatment for "patients" motivates them (Mogre et al., 2019). Nurses strive to provide patients with care that is led by their professional identities in order to fulfil the demanding patient needs that influence the healthcare sector.
When patient liberty and consumer sovereignty are prioritized, nurses frequently find themselves forced to make a compromise against their better judgement. Nursing professionals' awareness rarely translates into care delivery, which can lead to moral ambiguities. Nursing staff members encounter accountability without control in the care setting within the hierarchical German healthcare system. Due to absent authority, nurses find collaborating with other healthcare providers while performing their duties challenging (Świątoniowska et al., 2019).
With this also emerges relationships of mistrust for the medical staff. Moreover, Inadequate professional care competencies and a constrained professional identity are further factors. The care of diabetic patients is overwhelming for nurses, especially when it comes to resolving ethical conflicts. All healthcare professionals must grow personally and professionally, and increasing patient involvement in managing illnesses is crucia (Lambrinou et al., 2019). Additionally, providing a supportive and secure healthcare atmosphere is critical where expertise can be fostered and implemented by delegating care and taking accountability.
To interpret and take action on their clinical findings, nurses and nurse practitioners in primary care settings relied on various sorts of encouragement from colleagues with a specific clinical understanding of diabetes. Many patients specifically emphasised the significance of having effective communication with general practitioners to ascertain their level of trust and independence to make therapeutic decisions. It was difficult for the participants due to a lack of diabetes-specific knowledge on which to construct solid clinical judgements based on clinical observations and patient evaluations (Powers et al., 2020).
It was particularly hard because many doctors delivering home-based diabetes services gave contradictory recommendations, making them lack trust in their capacity to handle complex patient circumstances. Moreover, many studies stated that the nurse practitioners’ roles in managing diabetes were different and complex. Healthcare professionals reported participating in various activities, involving patient assistance, prescribing, promoting good health, and other interprofessional tasks.
Most of these roles were those of a general nurse, but doing them in a situation where people with diabetes were being treated came with additional duties. They claimed that nurses' communication of health promotion messages was advantageous for the patients (Whittemore et al., 2019). They invested a lot of time talking to patients, learning about them, imparting important knowledge about managing diabetes, and educating patients how to understand lab results.
There are many patients who are not able to understand the English language, so this also creates extra responsibilities for nurses because they need to understand the patient’s native language and also need to use drawing methods to make them understand. At the same time, nurses played a significant part in giving patients drug advice (Mogre et al., 2019). After effectively finishing a prescribing course, nurses said they could write prescriptions.
Prescriptions for insulin dosages were typically part of the prescription role. Many nurses believed it was crucial to be qualified to administer medications for conditions. For instance, a nurse claimed that, although feeling competent to do so in her current context, she was not permitted to administer the drug to her patient, who had high cholesterol levels and required medication such as statins. Because specific individuals require medical attention right away, nurses should refer them.
This can postpone the start of the cure. The clinic moves more quickly when prescriptions are written. As patients can begin taking the drug immediately away, it saves the patient time and improves their experience (Tachkov et al., 2020)
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